How to

The training module provides several implementations of ImportanceTraining that can wrap a Keras model and train it with importance sampling.

from importance_sampling.training import ImportanceTraining, BiasedImportanceTraining

# assuming model is a Keras model
wrapped_model = ImportanceTraining(model)
wrapped_model = BiasedImportanceTraining(model, k=1.0, smooth=0.5)

wrapped_model.fit(x_train, y_train, epochs=10)
model.evaluate(x_test, y_test)

Sampling probabilites and sample weights

All of the fit methods accept two extra keyword arguments on_sample and on_scores. They are callables that allow the user of the library to have read access to the sampling probabilities weights and scores from the performed importance sampling. Their API is the following,

on_sample(sampler, idxs, w, predicted_scores)

Arguments

  • sampler: The instance of BaseSampler being currently used
  • idxs: A numpy array containing the indices that were sampled
  • w: A numpy array containing the computed sample weights
  • predicted_scores: A numpy array containing the unnormalized importance scores
on_scores(sampler, scores)

Arguments

  • sampler: The instance of BaseSampler being currently used
  • scores: A numpy array containing all the importance scores from the presampled data

Bias

BiasedImportanceTraining and ApproximateImportanceTraining classes accept a constructor parameter . biases the gradient estimator to focus more on hard examples, the smaller the value the closer to max-loss minimization the algorithm is. By default k=0.5 which is found to often improve the generalization performance of the final model.

Smoothing

Modern deep networks often have innate sources of randomness (e.g. dropout, batch normalization) that can result in noisy importance predictions. To alleviate this noise one can smooth the importance using additive smoothing. The proposed ImportanceTraining class does not use smoothing and we propose to replace Dropout and BatchNormalization with regularization and LayerNormalization.

The classes that accept smoothing do so in the following way, the parameter is added to all importance predictions before computing the sampling distribution. In addition, they accept the parameter which when set to True multiplies with as computed by the moving average of the mini-batch losses.

Although, smooth is initialized at smooth=0.0, if instability is observed during training, it can be set to small values (e.g. [0.05, 0.1, 0.5]) or one can use adaptive smoothing with a sane default value for smooth being smooth=0.5.

Methods

The wrapped models aim to expose the same fit methods as the original Keras models in order to make their use as simple as possible. The following is a list of deviations or additions:

  • class_weights, sample_weights are not supported
  • fit_generator accepts a batch_size argument
  • fit_generator is not supported by all ImportanceTraining classes
  • fit_dataset has been added as a method (see Datasets)

Below, follows the list of methods with their arguments.

fit

fit(x, y, batch_size=32, epochs=1, verbose=1, callbacks=None, validation_split=0.0, validation_data=None, steps_per_epoch=None, on_sample=None, on_scores=None)

Arguments

  • x: Numpy array of training data, lists and dictionaries are not supported
  • y: Numpy array of target data, lists and dictionaries are not supported
  • batch_size: The number of samples per gradient update
  • epochs: Multiplied by steps_per_epoch defines the total number of parameter updates
  • verbose: When set >0 the Keras progress callback is added to the list of callbacks
  • callbacks: A list of Keras callbacks for logging, changing training parameters, monitoring, etc.
  • validation_split: A float in [0, 1) that defines the percentage of the training data to use for evaluation
  • validation_data: A tuple of numpy arrays containing data and targets to evaluate the network on
  • steps_per_epoch: The number of gradient updates to do in order to assume that an epoch has passed
  • on_sample: A callable that accepts the sampler, idxs, w, scores
  • on_scores: A callable that accepts the sampler and scores

Returns

A Keras History instance.

fit_generator

fit_generator(train, steps_per_epoch, batch_size=32, epochs=1, verbose=1, callbacks=None, validation_data=None, validation_steps=None, on_sample=None, on_scores=None)

Arguments

  • train: A generator yielding tuples of (data, targets)
  • steps_per_epoch: The number of gradient updates to do in order to assume that an epoch has passed
  • batch_size: The number of samples per gradient update (in contrast to Keras this can be variable)
  • epochs: Multiplied by steps_per_epoch defines the total number of parameter updates
  • verbose: When set >0 the Keras progress callback is added to the list of callbacks
  • callbacks: A list of Keras callbacks for logging, changing training parameters, monitoring, etc.
  • validation_data: A tuple of numpy arrays containing data and targets to evaluate the network on or a generator yielding tuples of (data, targets)
  • validation_steps: The number of tuples to extract from the validation data generator (if a generator is given)
  • on_sample: A callable that accepts the sampler, idxs, w, scores
  • on_scores: A callable that accepts the sampler and scores

Returns

A Keras History instance.

fit_dataset

fit_dataset(dataset, steps_per_epoch=None, batch_size=32, epochs=1, verbose=1, callbacks=None, on_sample=None, on_scores=None)

The calls to the other fit* methods are delegated to this one after a Dataset instance has been created. See Datasets for details on how to create a Dataset and what datasets are available by default.

Arguments

  • dataset: Instance of the Dataset class
  • steps_per_epoch: The number of gradient updates to do in order to assume that an epoch has passed (if not given equals the number of training samples)
  • batch_size: The number of samples per gradient update (in contrast to Keras this can be variable)
  • epochs: Multiplied by steps_per_epoch defines the total number of parameter updates
  • verbose: When set >0 the Keras progress callback is added to the list of callbacks
  • callbacks: A list of Keras callbacks for logging, changing training parameters, monitoring, etc.
  • on_sample: A callable that accepts the sampler, idxs, w, scores
  • on_scores: A callable that accepts the sampler and scores

Returns

A Keras History instance.

ImportanceTraining

importance_sampling.training.ImportanceTraining(model, presample=3.0, tau_th=None, forward_batch_size=None, score="gnorm", layer=None)

ImportanceTraining uses the passed model to compute the importance of the samples. It computes the variance reduction and enables importance sampling only when the variance will be reduced more than tau_th. When importance sampling is enabled, it samples uniformly presample*batch_size samples, then it runs a forward pass for all of them to compute the score and resamples according to the importance.

See our paper for a precise definition of the algorithm.

Arguments

  • model: The Keras model to train
  • presample: The number of samples to presample for scoring, given as a factor of the batch size
  • tau_th: The variance reduction threshold after which we enable importance sampling, when not given it is computed from eq. 29 (it is given in units of batch size increment)
  • forward_batch_size: Define the batch size when running the forward pass to compute the importance
  • score: Choose the importance score among . gnorm computes an upper bound to the full gradient norm that requires only one forward pass.
  • layer: Defines which layer will be used to compute the upper bound (if not given it is automatically inferred). It can also be given as an index in the model's layers property.

BiasedImportanceTraining

importance_sampling.training.BiasedImportanceTraining(model, k=0.5, smooth=0.0, adaptive_smoothing=False, presample=256, forward_batch_size=128)

BiasedImportanceTraining uses the model and the loss to compute the per sample importance. presample data points are sampled uniformly and after a forward pass on all of them the importance distribution is calculated and we resample the mini batch.

See the corresponding paper for details.

Arguments

  • model: The Keras model to train
  • k: Controls the bias of the sampling that focuses the network on the hard examples
  • smooth: Influences the sampling distribution towards uniform by additive smoothing
  • adaptive_smoothing: When set to True multiplies smooth with the average training loss
  • presample: Defines the number of samples to compute the importance for before creating each batch
  • forward_batch_size: Define the batch size when running the forward pass to compute the importance

ApproximateImportanceTraining

importance_sampling.training.ApproximateImportanceTraining(model, k=0.5, smooth=0.0, adaptive_smoothing=False, presample=2048)

ApproximateImportanceTraining creates a small model that uses the per sample history of the loss and the class to predict the importance for each sample. It can be faster than BiasedImportanceTraining but less effective.

See the corresponding paper for details.

Arguments

  • model: The Keras model to train
  • k: Controls the bias of the sampling that focuses the network on the hard examples
  • smooth: Influences the sampling distribution towards uniform by additive smoothing
  • adaptive_smoothing: When set to True multiplies smooth with the average training loss
  • presample: Defines the number of samples to compute the importance for before creating each batch

SVRG

importance_sampling.training.SVRG(model, B=10., B_rate=1.0, B_over_b=128)

SVRG trains a Keras model with stochastic variance reduced gradient. Specifically it implements the following two variants of SVRG

Arguments

  • model: The Keras model to train
  • B: The number of batches to use to compute the full batch gradient. For SVRG this should be either a very large number or 0. For SCSG it can be any number larger than 1
  • B_rate: A factor to multiply B with after every update
  • B_over_b: Compute a batch gradient after every B_over_b gradient updates.